You can not select more than 25 topics Topics must start with a letter or number, can include dashes ('-') and can be up to 35 characters long.

96 lines
7.9 KiB

# ==================================================================== #
# TITLE #
# Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Data Analysis for R #
# #
# SOURCE #
# https://github.com/msberends/AMR #
# #
# LICENCE #
# (c) 2018-2022 Berends MS, Luz CF et al. #
# Developed at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands, in #
# collaboration with non-profit organisations Certe Medical #
# Diagnostics & Advice, and University Medical Center Groningen. #
# #
# This R package is free software; you can freely use and distribute #
# it for both personal and commercial purposes under the terms of the #
# GNU General Public License version 2.0 (GNU GPL-2), as published by #
# the Free Software Foundation. #
# We created this package for both routine data analysis and academic #
# research and it was publicly released in the hope that it will be #
# useful, but it comes WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY OR LIABILITY. #
# #
# Visit our website for the full manual and a complete tutorial about #
# how to conduct AMR data analysis: https://msberends.github.io/AMR/ #
# ==================================================================== #
#' Calculate the Matching Score for Microorganisms
#'
#' This algorithm is used by [as.mo()] and all the [`mo_*`][mo_property()] functions to determine the most probable match of taxonomic records based on user input.
#' @inheritSection lifecycle Stable Lifecycle
#' @author Dr. Matthijs Berends
#' @param x Any user input value(s)
#' @param n A full taxonomic name, that exists in [`microorganisms$fullname`][microorganisms]
#' @section Matching Score for Microorganisms:
#' With ambiguous user input in [as.mo()] and all the [`mo_*`][mo_property()] functions, the returned results are chosen based on their matching score using [mo_matching_score()]. This matching score \eqn{m}, is calculated as:
#'
#' \ifelse{latex}{\deqn{m_{(x, n)} = \frac{l_{n} - 0.5 \cdot \min \begin{cases}l_{n} \\ \textrm{lev}(x, n)\end{cases}}{l_{n} \cdot p_{n} \cdot k_{n}}}}{\ifelse{html}{\figure{mo_matching_score.png}{options: width="300px" alt="mo matching score"}}{m(x, n) = ( l_n * min(l_n, lev(x, n) ) ) / ( l_n * p_n * k_n )}}
#'
#' where:
#'
#' * \ifelse{html}{\out{<i>x</i> is the user input;}}{\eqn{x} is the user input;}
#' * \ifelse{html}{\out{<i>n</i> is a taxonomic name (genus, species, and subspecies);}}{\eqn{n} is a taxonomic name (genus, species, and subspecies);}
#' * \ifelse{html}{\out{<i>l<sub>n</sub></i> is the length of <i>n</i>;}}{l_n is the length of \eqn{n};}
#' * \ifelse{html}{\out{<i>lev</i> is the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levenshtein_distance">Levenshtein distance function</a>, which counts any insertion, deletion and substitution as 1 that is needed to change <i>x</i> into <i>n</i>;}}{lev is the Levenshtein distance function, which counts any insertion, deletion and substitution as 1 that is needed to change \eqn{x} into \eqn{n};}
#' * \ifelse{html}{\out{<i>p<sub>n</sub></i> is the human pathogenic prevalence group of <i>n</i>, as described below;}}{p_n is the human pathogenic prevalence group of \eqn{n}, as described below;}
#' * \ifelse{html}{\out{<i>k<sub>n</sub></i> is the taxonomic kingdom of <i>n</i>, set as Bacteria = 1, Fungi = 2, Protozoa = 3, Archaea = 4, others = 5.}}{l_n is the taxonomic kingdom of \eqn{n}, set as Bacteria = 1, Fungi = 2, Protozoa = 3, Archaea = 4, others = 5.}
#'
#' The grouping into human pathogenic prevalence (\eqn{p}) is based on experience from several microbiological laboratories in the Netherlands in conjunction with international reports on pathogen prevalence. **Group 1** (most prevalent microorganisms) consists of all microorganisms where the taxonomic class is Gammaproteobacteria or where the taxonomic genus is *Enterococcus*, *Staphylococcus* or *Streptococcus*. This group consequently contains all common Gram-negative bacteria, such as *Pseudomonas* and *Legionella* and all species within the order Enterobacterales. **Group 2** consists of all microorganisms where the taxonomic phylum is Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria or Sarcomastigophora, or where the taxonomic genus is *Absidia*, *Acremonium*, *Actinotignum*, *Alternaria*, *Anaerosalibacter*, *Apophysomyces*, *Arachnia*, *Aspergillus*, *Aureobacterium*, *Aureobasidium*, *Bacteroides*, *Basidiobolus*, *Beauveria*, *Blastocystis*, *Branhamella*, *Calymmatobacterium*, *Candida*, *Capnocytophaga*, *Catabacter*, *Chaetomium*, *Chryseobacterium*, *Chryseomonas*, *Chrysonilia*, *Cladophialophora*, *Cladosporium*, *Conidiobolus*, *Cryptococcus*, *Curvularia*, *Exophiala*, *Exserohilum*, *Flavobacterium*, *Fonsecaea*, *Fusarium*, *Fusobacterium*, *Hendersonula*, *Hypomyces*, *Koserella*, *Lelliottia*, *Leptosphaeria*, *Leptotrichia*, *Malassezia*, *Malbranchea*, *Mortierella*, *Mucor*, *Mycocentrospora*, *Mycoplasma*, *Nectria*, *Ochroconis*, *Oidiodendron*, *Phoma*, *Piedraia*, *Pithomyces*, *Pityrosporum*, *Prevotella*, *Pseudallescheria*, *Rhizomucor*, *Rhizopus*, *Rhodotorula*, *Scolecobasidium*, *Scopulariopsis*, *Scytalidium*, *Sporobolomyces*, *Stachybotrys*, *Stomatococcus*, *Treponema*, *Trichoderma*, *Trichophyton*, *Trichosporon*, *Tritirachium* or *Ureaplasma*. **Group 3** consists of all other microorganisms.
#'
#' All characters in \eqn{x} and \eqn{n} are ignored that are other than A-Z, a-z, 0-9, spaces and parentheses.
#'
#' All matches are sorted descending on their matching score and for all user input values, the top match will be returned. This will lead to the effect that e.g., `"E. coli"` will return the microbial ID of *Escherichia coli* (\eqn{m = `r round(mo_matching_score("E. coli", "Escherichia coli"), 3)`}, a highly prevalent microorganism found in humans) and not *Entamoeba coli* (\eqn{m = `r round(mo_matching_score("E. coli", "Entamoeba coli"), 3)`}, a less prevalent microorganism in humans), although the latter would alphabetically come first.
#' @export
#' @inheritSection AMR Reference Data Publicly Available
#' @inheritSection AMR Read more on Our Website!
#' @examples
#' as.mo("E. coli")
#' mo_uncertainties()
#'
#' mo_matching_score(x = "E. coli",
#' n = c("Escherichia coli", "Entamoeba coli"))
mo_matching_score <- function(x, n) {
meet_criteria(x, allow_class = c("character", "data.frame", "list"))
meet_criteria(n, allow_class = "character")
x <- parse_and_convert(x)
# no dots and other non-whitespace characters
x <- gsub("[^a-zA-Z0-9 \\(\\)]+", "", x)
# only keep one space
x <- gsub(" +", " ", x)
# n is always a taxonomically valid full name
if (length(n) == 1) {
n <- rep(n, length(x))
}
if (length(x) == 1) {
x <- rep(x, length(n))
}
# length of fullname
l_n <- nchar(n)
lev <- double(length = length(x))
l_n.lev <- double(length = length(x))
for (i in seq_len(length(x))) {
# determine Levenshtein distance, but maximise to nchar of n
lev[i] <- utils::adist(x[i], n[i], ignore.case = FALSE, fixed = TRUE)
# minimum of (l_n, Levenshtein distance)
l_n.lev[i] <- min(l_n[i], as.double(lev[i]))
}
# human pathogenic prevalence (1 to 3), see ?as.mo
p_n <- MO_lookup[match(n, MO_lookup$fullname), "prevalence", drop = TRUE]
# kingdom index (Bacteria = 1, Fungi = 2, Protozoa = 3, Archaea = 4, others = 5)
k_n <- MO_lookup[match(n, MO_lookup$fullname), "kingdom_index", drop = TRUE]
# matching score:
(l_n - 0.5 * l_n.lev) / (l_n * p_n * k_n)
}